|According to you, which of the following words does NOT derive from French/Latin: Spirit Consideration Ghost Reflection.
One of the following statements about Early Modern English morphology is false: Prepositions are inflected Pronominal forms change Agreement on verbs almost disappears none of the above.
The Norman Invasion happened in this year(AD) 1066 1010 1262 874.
Which of the following Old English works documents the early history of England?
Boewulf The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle Boethius none of the above.
The change from synthetic to analytic is a major development in the history of English. What is one of its main manifestations? Grammatical functions are expressed by word order and prepositions rather than endings The expression of thought is now more analytical Many forms are always used to express a single form Grammaticalization has become dominant.
It is often maintained that English is used as a lingua franca? What does that mean? A lingua franca is a language that is used as a means of communication between people who are not familiar with each other's native language. A lingua franca is a language that is used as a means of communication between people who are native speakers of that language. A lingua franca is NOT a language that is used as a means of communication between people who are not familiar with each other's native language. none of the above.
Standard English emerged in this century: 16th 17th 20th 15th.
Did the printing press also serve to standardize English? Yes No It depends on the historical period we analyze none of the above.
Which of the varieties of English below is the oldest? US English Hiberno-English West Indian English Australian English.
The Great Vowel Shift only affected vowels of the following kind:
Short Low High Long Short.
Over one billion people worldwide are currently learning English: True False We cannot state such specific data It depends.
When, according to most scholars, did English start to become a global Language? In 1858 when Britain took over formal rule of India. In the reign of Henry VIII At the end of the 16th century, with the start of the colonisation of the West Indian and North American Colonies Immediately after the Norman Conquest (1066-1100).
What is meant by the abbreviation RP? Rest in Peace Receive a Prize none of the above Received Pronunciation.
Who were the original speakers of English? The Angles, Saxons and Celts The Angles, Saxons and Vikings The Angles, Celts and Jutes The Angles, Saxons and Jutes.
Which of the below is NOT generally considered to be a danger of having a global language? Cultural and linguistic imperialism Complacency about learning other languages The death of lesser spoken languages A growth of Bilingualism.
What does the acronym ESL stand for English as a Spoken Language English as a Second Language English for Students of Literature English as a Scientific Language.
Which of the below is NOT a subvariety of US English spoken by a distinct Ethnic/Social Group? Pennsylvania Dutch Cockney Tex Mex African American Vernacular English.
Varieties typical for social groups are called: Jargons Sociolects Dialects None of the above.
In Modern English grammatical relations are signaled by word order and prepositions. This means that this language is Analogical Synthetic Analytical none of the above.
In Old English grammatical relations were predominantly signaled by endings on nouns and verbs. This means that this language was: Analogical Analytic Synthetic None of the above.
During the Middle English period, from which two languages were many words borrowed? Latin and French Urdu and Iroquian Celtic and Old Norse none of the above.
What is another name for Old English?
Middle English Celtic Anglo-Saxon none of the above.
In which language family do the ultimate origins of the English language lie? Indo-European Latin North American none of the above.
When is the first attended usage of the phrase "inkhorn term" dated?
1700 1543 1925 1850.
Which one of the following texts was composed during the Old English period? Beowulf The Canterbury Tales Shakespeare's plays none of the above.
Choose the word with a different vowel sound what salt most none of the above.
Circle the word with stress in a different place famous mistake remove none of the above.
Choose the word if one of the consonants is not pronounced cold colour calm none of the above.
Choose the word if one of the consonants is not pronounced
hurry here hungry none of the above.
Circle the word with stress in a different place scientific economy economics none of the above.
Choose the word if one of the consonants is not pronounced
sword kiss rope.
Choose the word with a different vowel sound game fat hat.
Circle the word with stress in a different place
Choose the word if one of the consonants is not pronounced
Circle the word with stress in a different place
He's not at home No, it isn't it isn't true.
Choose the word with a different vowel sound rat tail hat.
Choose the word with a different vowel sound bread beach clean.
Choose the word with a different vowel sound today tourist table.
Choose the word with a different vowel sound luck run rude.
Circle the word with stress in a different place Holiday tomorrow Saturday .
Circle the word with stress in a different place morning fifty fifteen.
Choose the word if one of the consonants is not pronounced receipt repeat recipe.
Choose the word if one of the consonants is not pronounced listen eaten winter.
Circle the word with stress in a different place Close the door I like it He told me.
Choose the word with a different vowel sound lake care case.
Choose the word if one of the consonants is not pronounced cable label lamb.
Choose the word if one of the consonants is not pronounced old half pile.
Choose the word if one of the consonants is not pronounced climb camp cost.
Circle the word with stress in a different place January October December.
Choose the word with a different vowel sound hold hot swan.
Choose the word with a different vowel sound soup hope soap.
Choose the word with a different vowel sound took blood foot.
Circle the word with stress in a different place Don't worry Go to bed Fish and Chips.
Choose the word if one of the consonants is not pronounced hour hill hate.
Choose the word with a different vowel sound want black hand.
How many different lexemes are there in the following list? "man, men, girls, girl, mouse" 1 2 3.
"fantabulous" is reduplication blending coinage.
What can words often be divided into? lexemes morphemes roots.
A word can't be a morpheme. true false it depends on the context.
Identify the morphemes for the following word: components compon+ents component+s compon+ent+s.
"Google" is coinage clipping reduplication.
Identify the morphemes for the following word: Indo-European Indo-Europe+an Indo+Europe+an Indo+European.
Which of the following is the correct division of the English word repaired (meaning 'mended, fixed') into morphemes? re-paired re-pair-ed repair-ed.
How do we classify morphemes? root stems free-content (open) & function (closed); bound-content (derivational & bound roots) & function; affixes and suffixes.
Identify the morphemes for the following word: Persian Per+sian Pers+ian Persia+an.
Which of the following types of morpheme gives different forms of a root morpheme? Derivational Clitic Inflectional.
Which sentence describes derivational morphology? Adding a morpheme to produce a new word and a different lexeme. Adding a morpheme to produce the same word but a different lexeme. Adding a morpheme to produce a new word but the same lexeme.
In the English language inflectional morphemes can be... infixes only suffixes only prefixes and suffixes.
"fahrenheit" is eponymn clipping conversion.
'Sob!' is hypocorism onomatopeia back-formation.
In the English language derivational morphemes can be... prefixes and suffixes infixes only suffixes only .
Depending on the language, an inflectional affix can be a clitic or a free grammatical word.
false true it depends on the context .
Identify the morphemes for the following word: another an+other a+nother anothe+r.
Identify the morphemes for the following word: notable not+ab+le not+able note+able.
Inflectional affixes are generally more productive than derivational affixes. true false it depends on the context.
"hankie" is blending acronymy hypocorism.
Identify the morphemes for the following word: elements el+ements element+s el+ement+s.
"NATO" is blending acronymy blending.
Free Morphemes can occur as a dependant word all by themselves can occur as an independant word all by themselves cannot occur as an independent word all by themselves.
Roots are always free. true false.
"Motel" is back-formation blending clipping.
Bound Roots cannot stand on their own can stand on their ow it depends on the context.
Attaching a derivational morpheme to a root always changes its part-of-speech. true false.
Bound Morphemes can stay alone cannot stand alone, but must be attached to other morphemes.
"to biograph" is acronymy back-formation onomatopoeia .
"doc" is clipping redupluication conversion.
Which sentence describes inflectional morphology? Adding a morpheme to produce a new word and different lexeme. Adding a morpheme to produce the same word but different lexeme. Adding a morpheme to produce a new word but the same lexeme.
Bound morphemes are called affixes. false true.
Morphemes are minimal linguistic signs in the sense that they can't be divided into further signs. true false.
Identify the morphemes for the following word: inputs input+s in+put+s i+nput+s.
What is morphology? The study of the rules governing sentence formation The study of the rules governing word formation The study of the rules governing the sounds that form words.
Freedom/liberity is synonymy antonymy hyponymy.
The meaning that is made the focus of attention by a linguistic expression (e.g. the repetition of an event, focused on by English again) icon prototype profile.
a kind of semantic shift whereby the meaning of a word, expression, or construction comes to refer to an associated object or situation; e.g. be going to shifting from denoting a motion event to denoting future tense or purpose antonymy polysemy metonymy.
true/false is antonymy hyponymy synonymy.
Dog/animal hyponymy antonymy synonymy .
A linguistic expression, drawing, or other representation associated with a meaning or conception sense sign propositional content.
What is it called when two words, phrases or sentences have the same semantic meaning? synonymy antonymy contradiction.
The property of having multiple distinct meanings (e.g. bug 'to spy on' and bug 'an insect or other similar small creature') is called: antonymy metonymy polysemy.
The relation of being a more specific meaning or subtype (e.g. amble to walk) antonymy hyponymy synonymy.
The conventional meaning of a linguistic expression sign reference sense.
The relation between a linguistic expression and things (objects, people, places, ideas, actions etc.) in the world that are associated with that expression is called:
reference sign sense.
Type of sign for which the form of the linguistic expression or other meaningful representation is physically or causally connected to what it refers to (e.g. in language, words that do not have a fixed referent outside of interactional context such as English this, here, I, you)
icon index prototype.
A salient exemplar or subtype of a category (e.g. robin for bird as opposed to penguin for bird) synonym prototype hyponym.
a relation between two propositions, P and Q, where if P is true, then Q must also be true presupposition entailment paradox.
Any effect or association of a linguistic expression, in addition to the things in the world it refers to (e.g. the association to children's speech or child-directed speech that are part of the word doggie, though it refers to the same things in the world as dog) connotation sense reference.
What is Semantics? The basic, essential components of meaning that are conveyed by the literal use of a word The study of the meaning of words, phrases and sentences. The entity that preforms the action.
What is conceptual meaning? A noun phrase used to designate an entity as the person who has a feeling, perception or state. The basic, essential components of meaning that are conveyed by the literal use of a word. The study of the meaning of words, phrases and sentences.
Define words with opposite meanings: sense paradox Antonymy.
Words with the same form and related meanings refer to Polysemy antonymy metonymy.
Words with very closely related meanings are called synonyms antonymys connotations.
cab/taxi is a: sense paradox synonym.
One lexeme with several related but distinct meanings: Homonymy Homophony Homography Polysemy.
A background proposition that comes embedded in the use of a linguistic expression, and so is expressed without being asserted. connotation presupposition paradox.
Consider the sentence below: "The fact that I have a grandson doesn't mean I'm a grandmother."The speaker's denial of the fact that she is a grandmotherdespite her being one by definition is a violation of which maxim? quality relation quantity .
What does the Maxim of Quality imply? Don't impose, Give options, Make your receiver feel good Do not lie; do not make unsupported claims Be relevent.
What does the Politeness Principle imply? Be relevant Don't impose, Give options, Make your receiver feel good Be brief and orderly; avoid ambiguity and obscurity.
The term accent is used of dialectal varieties that differ just in grammar. True False.
Speech Acts Communicative acts that carry meaning beyond the words and phrases used within them, for example, apologies and promises. The awareness of others' needs to be approved of and liked Using paralinguistic features when speaking.
Define Pragmatics. features that appear when we put sounds together in connected speech. It is as important to teach learners pragmatic features as successful communication depends as much on intonation, stress and rhythm as on the correct pronunciation of sounds. Some definitions limit this to verbal communication that is not words. Body language, gestures, facial expressions, tone and pitch of voice are all examples of pragmatics a subfield of linguistics and semiotics that studies the ways in which context contributes to meaning. It encompasses speech act theory, conversational implicature, talk in interaction and other approaches to language behavior in philosophy, sociology, linguistics and anthropology.
What is a Perlocution? The study of language in use; the study of meaning in context; the study of intended speaker meaning; the study of utterance meaning The effect of the act on the hearer The action intended by the speaker.
A dialect continuum is a chain of mutually intelligible dialects of a language. true false.
Dialectal variation refers to variation in linguistic forms associated primarily with which of the following phenomena? geographical regions social groups different speakers.
What does the The Cooperative Principle by H. Paul Grice state? Make your conversational contribution such as is required, at the stage at which it occurs, by the accepted purpose or direction of the talk exchange in which you are engaged General principles on which the pact of cooperation touches Accomplish an action when they are uttered (to test, insert "hereby" before them).
A control group may be used for pragmatics to demonstrate no effect or a standard effect versus a novel effort applied to a treatment group. true false .
The relation between a linguistic expression and its expresser is a part of pragmatics. true false.
What are Conversational Maxims? the Actual utterances; sentences with a grammatical structure and a linguistic meaning General principles on which the pact of cooperation touches The actions intended by the speaker.
Dialectal variation can be in any aspect of a language -- in phonetics, phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, or lexicon true false.
What is Deixis? An implied meaning that has to be inferred as a result of a conversational maxim being broken. Words that are context bound where meaning depends on who is being referred to, where something is happening or when something is happening. A word that is quite hard to spell.
Consider the interaction below: J: How is your tomato? M: It's a little ripe. J: Yeah, I had to edit it. By using the word "edit," J means that he had to cut out overly ripe parts of the tomato. However, the conventional meaning of "edit" does not fit here. This is a violation of which maxim? manner quality quantity .
What does the Maxim of Relevance imply? Be relevent Be brief and orderly; avoid ambiguity and obscurity Say neither more nor less than the discourse requires.
What is an Illocutionary Act? the Speaker's intention; What the speaker intends to accomplish Actual utterance; a sentence with a grammatical structure and a linguistic meaning The action intended by the speaker.
What is an Illocution? The action intended by the speaker
The Speaker's intention; What the speaker intends to accomplish
The effect of the act on the hearer.
Which of the following varieties is not a register? scientific Danish British English medical English.
What does the Maxim of Quantity imply? Say neither more nor less than the discourse requires
Be brief and orderly; avoid ambiguity and obscurity.
What is inference? The process of signalling attitude The process of deriving implied meanings The concept of how all communication relies on presenting a 'face'.
Consider the following sentence: "He kissed her on the neck." The interpretation that the kiss was of a sexual nature is a particularized conversational implicature because it is a necessary inference. is an entailment because it is a necessary inference.
is a particularized conversational implicature because it is a potential though not necessary inference. .
The choice of language by speakers in a bilingual community is not normally completely random. true false .
What is defined as the study of language and how it is affected by region, social class, relationship, and even gender? morphology sociolinguistics phonology.
What is the ideational function of language? To communicate meaning To express identity To make jokes.
. What is the discipline which studies languages? Linguistcs Morphology Phonetics.
The sounds made by holding the lips together and then releasing the sound, such as p and b. bilabial labiodental velar.
Lexical word classes function as the heads of different phrases are found in only a small subset of the world's languages are generally closed and express a limited range of meanings.
"Case" refers to when nouns in a language take affixes for categories such as singular, dual, and plural nouns in a language take affixes to indicate the relationship that holds between the noun phrase and the verb of a sentence nouns in a language take affixes for different timeframes in which events occur.
We can also use the upper teeth with the lower lip, for _________ sounds. This is how we make an f sound. labiodental uvular velar.
It is the study of the meaning of languages. Linguistics Syntax Semantics.
Which of the following sets of sounds represents the natural class of voiceless alveolar consonants in English? [t, s] [t, d] [p,t, s].
The vocal cords can be tightened and loosened and can vibrate when air is past them, creating sounds called ________. examples include the consonants b, d, g, v, z and r. voiced stopping voiceless.
What is the technical term for 'body language'? Semantics Linguistics Non-verbal communications.
What is the hierarchical relationship between clauses, phrases, sentences, and words? Words combine to form phrases, phrases combine to form sentences, and sentences combine for form clauses. Words combine to form phrases, phrases combine to form clauses, and clauses combine to form sentences. Words combine to form clauses, clauses combine to form phrases, and phrases combine to form sentences.
Phonetics is the study of the sounds of language. What do we call to this sounds? Morphemes Phonemes Lexicology.
We also have two names for the parts of the tongue used with these various parts of the mouth: The front edge is called the _______, sounds like t, th, and s are made with this. dorsum corona dental.
"Number" refers to when nouns in a language take affixes to indicate the relationship that holds between the noun phrase and the verb of a sentence nouns in a language take affixes for categories such as singular, dual, and plural.
Adjectives are typically characterized by: their ability to be used in comparative and superlative construction their occurrence within a noun phrase all of the above.
And the back edge is called the _________. Sounds k, g, and ng are made with this. velar dorsum corona.
What is the study of language as it pertains to social classes, ethnic groups and genders? sociolinguistics comparative linguistics psycholinguistics.
What is kinesics? The study of word formation processes The study of non-verbal visual communication The study of tone of voice.
What is the term used to describe the creative capacity of language to invent new words and sentences? Proxemics Productivity Syntax.
The English language begins with the Anglo-Saxons. true false.
In the sentence: "He picked up the book" "Picked up" is ditransitive because it takes two arguments: "he" and "the book". "up" is a verb particle and "the book" is a direct object "He" is an experiencer and "the book" iis an instrument.
"open word class" is a class to which it is very difficult to add new words through borrowing and word-formation processes a class whose members refer to the speaker, hearer, or others and constitute the sole element of a noun phrase a class to which one can easily incorporate new members through borrowing and other word-formation processes.
"closed word class" is a class in which the words usually contain many morphemes a class to which one can easily incorporate new members through borrowing and other word-formation processes a class to which it is very difficult to add new words through borrowing and word-formation processes.
In the vocal tract, speech starts with the _________ which push air out (carbon dioxide) and pull it in (oxygen) nose uvula lungs.
Spanish "escuela alta" represents a morpheme-by-morpheme translation from English "high school." This is an example of:
a calque a semantic loan interferrence.
What are the two levels of language referred to by the term 'duality'? Kinesics and proxemics Structure and use Sound and meaning.
Which of these words best describes the focus of pragmatics? Sense Structure Choice.
We have the larynx, or voice box. It sits at the juncture of the __________ or windpipe coming up from the lungs,and esophagus coming up from the stomach. tongue trachea lungs.
The phonological change of the final consonant in English 'knife' [naif] when it appears next to [z] in the plural 'knives' [naivz], illustrates which type of common phonological process? clipping assimilation coalescence.
"Grammatical word classes" are generally open and express a vast array of meanings function as the heads of different phrases are generally closed and express a limited range of meanings.
Which of the following pairs of words represents a minimal pair for [s] and [ʃ] in English? shook [ʃʊk] and shock [ʃɔk] sheep [ʃip] and sip [sip] crash [kræʃ] and crass [kræs].
Which question about language use does pragmatics try to answer? Why? When? How?.
What factor is omitted in an account of French tu/vous which talks only of singular versus plural? Grammar Audience Comprehension.
Other phonemes do not involved the vocal cords and there is no vibration, such as the consonants h, t, s, p, k, l, and f are called voiceless (or unvoiced) voiced voicing .
Which of the following sets of sounds represents the natural class of rounded vowels in English? [u, o] [u, ʊ, o] [u, ʌ, ʊ, o].
What is semiotics? The study of human communication The study of buildings The study of music.
. Under what heading would we discuss the use of such titles as 'Mr' and 'Mrs'? Terms of address Slang Graffiti.