|The text/discourse is therefore "meaningful and unified". This quality is called: cohesion function coherence or relevance coherence, not relevance.
Discourse analysis emphasizes none of the above the structure of the text the social principles of discourse the context.
the study of how the assumption of relevance holds texts together meaningfully is defined by the context the felicity condition the relevance theory the cooperative principle.
the speaker's purpose(s) in speaking is called: pragmatics function cohesion coherence.
"the parts of meaning that can be explained by knowledge of the physical and social world, and the socio-psychological factors influencing communication, as well the knowledge of the time and place in which the words are said." is defined: text co-text function context.
When the referent is mentioned for the first time in a text, we call it anaphoric endophoric exophoric deictic.
when a referring expression points to entities that have been already mentioned in a previous conversation, we talk about cooperative principle deixis intertextuality situational context.
Co-text is: a special vocabulary people share our cultural context what people know of the way of the world the context of the text we are dealing with.
The situational context refers to the speakers' knowledge what speakers knows of the environment surrounding them none of the above what speakers knows of the world.
What is a reference? an act in which the speaker(s) use linguistic forms NOT to enable the hearer to identify the entity being referred to an act in which the speaker(s) use linguistic forms to identify the entity being referred to none of the above an act in which the speaker(s) use linguistic forms to enable the hearer to identify the entity being referred to.
We can devide the backgound knowledge into general knowledge and relevance knowledge primary and secondary knowledge personal and interpersonal knowledge cultural general knowledge and interpersonal knowledge.
we already know about the entities mentioned in a text, we talk about anaphoric reference endophoric reference grammatical reference elliptic reference.
"I eat lamb and veal: I really love meat". In this sentece, "meat" is: a substitution a Superordinate an ellipsis a synonim.
"I hate this stuff! Why do I have to study it?". In this sentence, the word "stuff" is: a superordinate a cataphora a substitution a general word.
How many types of endophora are there? 3 4 2 just one.
Who theorized Speech Acts? Austin Culpeper Saussure Searle.
Discourse can be analyzed through two approaches: exchange structure and conversation exchange structure and conversation analysis anaphora and cataphora the 5 micro-classes discourse and conversation analysis.
behind every utterance there is always a performative verb: this is the cooperative principle the performative act the felicity condition the performative hypothesis.
ordering, requesting, commanding, inviting... are all examples of: commissives declarations expressives directives.
the words that commit the speaker to future actions are called illocutionary acts conversational representatives commissive.
"I command" is an example of: declaration deixis superordinate substitution.
speech acts that not always are supported by a performative verb are called illocutionary acts felicity acts implicit performatives cooperative performatives.
ellipsis omits part of the discourse because the hearer/reader already knows the hearer does not want to know is absent the hearer/reader is not interested.
Substitution______ repetitions in a text. produces avoids adds omits.
How many maxims do we have, according to Grice? 3 infinite 2: truth and lie 4.
The cooperative principle was theorized by John Austin John Searle Lakoff Paul Grice.
Relevance Theory was theorized by Sperber and Wilson Wison and Austin Sperber and Grice Sperber and Austin.
The degree of Relevance Theory is governed by Grice's four Maxims contextual effects and processing effort contextual effects without considering any effort a strong processive effort.
When we provide new information by filling in the missing words, we are performing an explicature Bald on Record Impoliteness Bald on Record Politeness an implicature.
Polite Principle has _____ principles. 6 2 3 4.
which of these acts does NOT threat our positive face? humiliation emotion leakage admissions of guilt apologies.
The hearer's positive face is threatened when The speaker expresses apologies the speaker doesn't really care about his/her feelings says he/she is sorry The speaker expresses thanks.
When was Politeness: Some universals in language usage published? 1978 1987 1967 1970.
The concept of "face" was theorized for the first time by Brown and Levinson Culpeper and Levinson Goffman Lakoff and Leech.
According to Leech, absolute politeness is: less powerful than relative politeness more powerful than relative politeness as powerful as relative politeness none of the above.
Which of these maxim is NOT included in Leech's Polite Principle? Honesty Maxim Simpathy Maxim Tact Maxim Modesty Maxim.
Leech's approach to politeness has ____ principles 2 4 6 3.
Polite Principle was theorized by Lakoff Austin Searle Culpeper.
implicit messages the hearer addresses to the speaker are implicatures explicatures swearwords off-record.
Politeness started to be studied during the the last twenty years 1970s 1960s 1950s.
politeness as a reducer of social friction according to Culpeper Austin Lakoff Searle.
How many groups do Brown and Levinson devide FTAs? 3 5 2 4.
when we go on record, we have ______ intentions ambiguous second clear hidden.
when we go off record, the speech will be: ambiguous direct clear fully comprehensible.
To go bald means to speak ambiguously to speak by omitting information to enrich our discourse with rethorical figures to speak as directly and clearly as possible.
Which of these strategies is NOT included when we go off record?
offers rethorical questions
social distance between the speaker and the hearer is: the right has the speaker to perform an act the degree of familiarity and solidarity they share the measure the speaker can impose his/her will on the hearer the degree the speaker has to perform an act.
relative power of the speaker and the hearer is the degree the speaker has to perform an act the right has the speaker to perform an act the degree of familiarity and solidarity they share the measure the speaker can impose his/her will on the hearer.
Poststructuralism was born during the 1950s during the 1940s, initially, and from the 1950s on in 1978, with the publication of Brown and Levinson's book during the 1960s.
Impoliteness depends on how someone says something rather than if is said what is said rather than how someone says something how someone says something rather than at what is said when someone says something rather than where is said.
Impoliteness. Using Language to Cause Offence was published in 1978 1998 1969 1996.
How many components does Intentionality require? 3 5 4 2.
The violation of social norms leads to none of the above morality immorality FTAs.
As for Spencer-Oatey definition of "relational face", Culpeper: does not have an opinion about disagrees because talking about rights and obligations means to include in any analysis social/legal background, that is not always easy to do fully agrees anounced that it was one of his definitions and Spencer-Oatey had copied it.
Goffaman's definition of Face is different from that of Brown and Levinson because it includes the notion of social interdependence it includes the notion of social media it includes the notion of social status it includes the notion of social and economic status.
According to Goffman, Face is: an image of self delineated in terms of approved nationality an image of self delineated in terms of approved social attributes an image of self delineated in terms of money an image of self delineated in terms of qualified education.
Mock Impoliteness inevitably will cause offence
is not intended to cause offence is a lie told by the hearer is intended to cause offence.
How many super-strategies are listed by Brown and Levinson 4 3 5 2.
Mock Impoliteness is also called absolute impoliteness relative impoliteness fake impoliteness banter.
Withhold politeness is the _______ of politeness work where it would be expected. ironic presence absence positive/negative.
In a conversation, if I invade other speakers' space I'm expressing, according to Brown and Levinson's super-strategies: being sarcastic positive impoliteness negative impoliteness mocking impoliteness.
If I ridicule someone, what am I doing according to Brown and Levinson's super-strategies? negative impoliteness being sarcastic mocking impoliteness positive impoliteness.
To include taboo words in a conversation means, according to Brown and Levinson's super-strategies: positive impoliteness negative impoliteness irony sarcasm.
To use a secretive language means, according to Brown and Levinson's super-strategies: irony negative impoliteness sarcasm positive impoliteness.
To be unsympathetic means, according to Brown and Levinson's super-strategies: sarcasm positive impoliteness negative impoliteness irony.
When you plan to write an essay, _____ can help you do it the best way possivble recycling homework brainstorming drafting plagiarism.
An account that gives detailed information about one or more people and describes development over aperiod of time is: a report a case study a thesis a dissertation.
Is there any difference between THESIS and DISSERTATION?
Thesis in used in UK, while dissertation in the USA
the thesis is a final work you write at the end of a Ph. D. course; the dissertation is the final work students write at the end of their BA/MA the thesis is a final work you write At the end of their BA/MA ; the dissertation is the final work students write at the end of a Ph. D. course No, they are synonyms.
Written papers usually made during the academic carreer are: brainstorming homework extended essays reports.
A collaborative website which can be directly edited by anyone who accesses to it is:
a field study a wiki a blog a chat.
When you prepare to write an academic essay, what is the first thing you do? draft gather information make a plan organize the information.
when writing a paper, it is essential to establish a clear _____ research brainstorming session it depends focus.
Jstor or ResearchGate are: publishing houses editing strategies online libraries forums.
when writing a paper, it is essential to work alone? yes, because nobody has studied the things you studied. definitely: don't trust anyone No: it always a good thing to be read by an external critic eye yes, because you are the best critic of yourself.
To identify the relevant information it is importa to read anything nothing at all randomly, as long it is related to your academic field. selectively.
What does "to frame something in your own terms" means? to quote someone else's opinion properly your reader expects to read about your point of view or stance to care about the graphic layout of your paper to express your opinion openly, without academic references to support your idea.
Evidences give _____ to your essay: more academic weight a lot of problems nothing (it is better not to include them) problems with plagiarism.
Summerizing means: to write a brief essay condensing someone's ideas into shorter form avoiding relevant pieces of information omitting random information.
Paraphrasing means: to reach different conclusions in your essay changing the order of the sentences in your essay rewriting someone's ideas using different words and phrases to omit information.
Plagiarism is a strategy to quote someone else's opinion in your writing always a good thing to do when writing a strategy to provide academic weight to your writing a form of cheating.
N O W (Approach) is the acronym of: Not - Only - Writing Note - Over - Writing Not - Organized - Writing Note - Organize - Write.
The Cornell Note-Taking Method was created by Walter Pauk Walter Paul Cornell Paul Cornell Walter Cornell.
the title of your essay must be evocative as clear as direct as possible romantic sensational!.
In the conclusion of your essay, which of these options is NOT included? a comment of all the features described in the body some possible references for further analysis your personal opinion a brief reference to the thesis statement.
Evaluating essays are: texts that state what you think about a topic texts that conveys an idea or that tries to verify a hypothesis charts reviews.
In the body of your essay, is it possible to state your opinion? Absolutely not Yes, provided that you start with "I think that" Yes, provided that you convey academically Yes, provided that you put it between inverted commas ("").
In the introduction of your essay, you can offer a general summary of the most recent events related to the topic you have chosen your personal opinion a quick reminder of the conclusion you will achieve none of the above.
A tutorial is: a meeting between teachers and experts of didactic a video on YouTube a meeting between professor and student another name to define lessons.
even translating from another language without acknowledging the source is: a good exercise to enrich your vocabulary a solid strategy to improve your skills plagiarism a homage to the scholars you've studied.
In a paper, definitions are: obsolete, because the reader is a specialist in the field redundant, it is better not to use them provided in the initial part of the paper never stated because of plagiarism.
As for the general features of the Introducion of your essay, do you have to include them all' Yes, otherwise the introduction will be considered poor by the reader No, infact we can also omit the whole introduction and start writing the body of our essay Yes, provided that there is no over-lap among them It is not mandatory to include all the features of the introduction.
What is an abstract? a brief text used to summarize the contents of an academic text another name to refer to the introduction of your essay a non concrete sentence the summary of a book you generally find on the back cover.
The abstract include information about the aim, the method, the main findings and also the conclusions of your research bibliographic information about your paper the goal of your essay and the method you employ some clues about the aim and the method, but not about about the findings and the conclusions.
which of these function is NOT related to the introduction of your essay? to give some ideas of the content and the stance of the writer to set the tone for the reader to suggest how the paper is organized to introduce the writer.
Are there connections between introduction and conclusion in an essay? Nowadays, scholars tend not to refer to the conclusion when they write the introduction No, otherwise the reader would not finish reading our essay Yes, you can refer to the conclusions in the introduction and viceversa Nowadays, scholars tend not to refer back to the introduction when they write the conclusions.
which of these function is NOT related to the conclusion of your essay? sharing of your knowledge to show the extent to which you have been able to deal with the issues involved to pull together all the main ideas to refer back to what you outlined in the introduction.
Which of these option is correct? When presenting a power point: all the option are correct. you should avoid using emoji, meme, etc. you should create NOT too dense slides you should choose a large font, so that the audience can read.
During an oral presentation, when you pass from a point to another it is better use linking words silence, so that the audience can get ready for the next argument repetitions a brief pause.
Which of the following behaviours is NOT recommended during an oral presentation? manage time make eye-contact: the audience will be scared of you speak clearly Speak fast and loud.
Stylistics is focused on media context fiction and non-fiction language.
Morphemes are the smallest grammatical constituents the written medium of language the sounds of spoken language the smallest lexical constituents.
Foregrounding is closely related to the Russian Formalist concept of stylistics structuralism defamiliarization post-structuralism.
How many functions does Jakobson's model include? 4 2 6 5.
Jakobson's poetic function projects the principle of equivalence from the axis of combination, but not into the axis of selection the axis of combination into the axis of selection the axis of selection into the axis of combination the axis of selection beyond the axis of combination.
What are the components Jakobson added to Buhler's model? code and message contact and context context and addresee code, contact and message.
Grammar is organized according to the speaker's logics hierarchically semantically randomly.
How many basic elements do we distinguish in a clause structure? 5 3 4 2.
the iambic foot has two syllables... none of them stressed both weakely stressed one less heavely stressed than the other both equally stressed.
In metrics, the basic unit of analysis is the syllable the foot the iambic the verse.
attenuated focalisation is referred to a situation where point of view is NOT limited the narrator tend to use a soft language a situation where point of view is limited a censured text.
Adjuncts express location and spatial
indicate the origo determine the language emploied by the narrator determine the point of view.
the deictic centre around which objects are positioned relative to their relative proximity or distance to the reflector is called deixis diegesis orion origo.
deixis works primarily by presenting characters situating the speaking voice in physical space presenting time and space the plot is set determining rhythm.
If the narrator is external, we will talk about first-person narrator third-person narrator heterodiegetic narrator homodiegetic narrator.
deictic elements are, for example, adverbs the tenses of verbs personal pronouns demonstratives.
the physical channel of communication through which a story is narrated is the stylistic medium the textual channel the text the texual medium.
The term plot is referred to the use of stylistic devices language which is produced by a story-teller the use of flashback or flashforward to the abstract storyline of a narrative.
We may encounter a kind of 'restricted omniscience' when the narrator uses a language that we don't understand the narrator expresses impoliteness a first-person narrator comes across as unable or reluctant to delve at will into the thoughts and feelings of characters a third-person narrator comes across as unable or reluctant to delve at will into the thoughts and feelings of characters.
Deictic center is also referred to social position none of the above point of view phonological pattern.
Pushes and Pops were theorized by Culpeper Galbraith Jakobson Jakobson and Chomsky.
Which of these is NOT an example of PUSH? flashback wake up from a dream story within a story they are all pushes.
Which of these is NOT an example of POP? flashback wake up from a dream they are all pops remarks by the narrator.
The Popping move is referred to authors who let the reader know about their presence in the plot by explicit remarks the passage from reality from flashforward when we pass from fist- to third-person narrator the passage from flashback to reality.
When was Deixis in Narrative. A Cognitive Science Perspective published? 1996 1993 1991 1995.
The knowledge of what to say, and when and where to say is called politeness communicative competence deictic competence narrative competence.
Dialogue in drama has been studied between 1980s and 1990s 2000 and nowadays 1970s and 1980s 1960s and1970s.
The categories that express thought are 4 3 2 infinite.
ICMs do not depend on the subject's experiences do not face an evolution are subject to modification in the course of an individual subject's experience and development none of the above.
ICMs allow us to take cognitive short-cuts censures omissions critics.
ICMs none of the above are universal changed from the 1980s on ICMs differ between subjects .
"France made war with England": which figure of speech has been used in this sentence? Metaphor metonymy synecdoche none of the above.
Caricature is is a form of metonymic distortion is a form of distorted irony is a form of simil distortion is a form of metaphoric distortion.
A metaphore is a process of mapping between two different icons conceptual domains registers figures of speech.
the domains that are related to the metaphor are called target and source domain speaking and thinking domain target and text domain source and conceptual domain.
When the part stands for the whole, we call that particular figure of speech: synecdoche synonym metaphor metonymy.
"Your eyes are like jewels": which figure of speech is this? Simile metonymy iambic verse Metaphor.
phonaesthetic fallacy happens because there is a certain risk in trying to connect up directly a particular feature of sound in a text with nonlinguistic phenomena outside the text we exploit the imitative potential of language we don't consider the mimetic function of language we have to speak with toddlers.
Puns are abbreviations for "punctuation" stylistic devices for creating irony some old figure of speeches that we no longer use stylistic devices for creating humour.
Parody and satire are forms of verbal humour which draw on a particular kind of comicity for the design of their stylistic incongruity verbal humour which draw on a particular kind of irony for the design of their stylistic incongruity verbal humour which draw on a particular kind of irony for the design of their stylistic congruity verbal irony which draw on a particular kind of humour for the design of their stylistic incongruity.
"finger" and "hand" are linked through antonymy sinonymity meronymy hyponymy.
Which of these is NOT a cohesive tie, according to Hasan and Halliday? synopsis ellipsis substitution conjunction.
Cohesion in English was published in 1994 1975 1976 1973.
The concept of 'lexical bundles' was developed by Halliday and Biber Halliday Halliday and Hasan Biber.
the ways grammatical words appear with particular lexical items to cover relationships between grammatical categories and particular lexical words colligation collocation coherence cohesion.
What we hear, read or use are often fabricated multi-word phrases: this principle is called idiom principle lexical principle open choice principle lexical bundles principle.
cognitive metaphor theory was developed by Johnson, Lakoff and Halliday Lakoff and Johnson Lakoff and Halliday Halliday and Biber.
Metaphors We Live By was published in 1982 1976 1980 1978.
A conceptual domain is any coherent organization of experience any collocative organization of experience none of the above any colligative organization of experience.
The transference always happens from the source to the target domain and it is non-reversible often reversible always reversible rarely reversible.
Mental spaces theory was formulated in 1985 1994 1998 1988.
Mental spaces theory is the basis for impoliteness cognitive metaphors Blending theory cognitive stylistics.
Mental spaces theory was originally formulated by Lakoff Halliday and Hasan Biber Fauconnier.
Cours de linguistique générale was published in 1916 1996 1926 1925.